Brak grafiki
Historia Polski~Polish History

Dziecięcy karabin maszynowy

Ceremonia, która zamierzam opisac miala miejsce przeszlo 60 lat temu, czyli wiecej niz kopa lat wstecz. Pomimo, ze mieszkam w Meksyku od 54 lat, uroczystosc, jaka miala miejsce przeszlo pól wieku temu, stoi mi w pamieci i przed oczyma tak, jakby to wszystko odbylo sie zaledwie wczoraj.

Wszystko koncentruje sie wokól daty (11 listopada 1938 r.) i miejsca wydarzenia, jakim byla ujezdzalnia I-go Pulku Szwolezerów na ulicy Szwolezerów w Warszawie. A co wlasciwie takiego specjalnego mialo tam miejsce? W skali swiatowej czy historii Polski to wlasciwie nic specjalnego ani godnego uwagi nie zaszlo. Lecz… wlasnie chodzi o te „lecz…” Wracam wiec pamiecia wstecz, o te kilkadziesiat lat, pokrytych juz kurzem historii i jednej z najkrwawszych, i najburzliwszych epok ludzkosci.

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Bohdan Chmielewski
Historia Polski~Polish History

Maria Kazimiera – królowa Polski

Aleksander Wietrzyk Part I, II, III, IV, V
Lata dzieciństwa

Niewiele wiemy na temat dziecinstwa Marii Kazimiery. Wiadomo tylko, ze miala liczne rodzenstwo: dwóch braci i cztery siostry. Dwie z nich wstapily do klasztoru, a pozostale wraz z bracmi trafily za siostra do kraju nad Wisla. 

Ojciec przyszlej królowej, markiz d’Arquien, sluzyl w tym czasie u ksiecia Orleanskiego Gastona, brata Ludwika XII,I jako kapitan gwardii szwajcarskiej, a jego malzonka pelnila funkcje ochmistrzyni ksiezniczki newerskiej Marii Gonzagi. Markiz d’Arquien w mlodosci hulaka, pijak i kobieciarz, na starosc byl juz tylko podupadlym arystokrata, szukajacym szczescia na dworach magnackich. W podeszlym wieku przybyl do Polski i zmarl przezywszy ponad sto lat.
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The Monte Cassino Cross - obverse and reverse
Historia Polski~Polish History

The Polish Victory at Monte Cassino

The Monte Cassino Cross - obverse and reverseBy Prof. Dr. Zdzislaw P. Wesolowski – Colonel, South Carolina State Guard (Reserve)
The Abbey at Monte Cassino is one of the most famous abbeys in Europe. It was founded by Saint Benedict of Nursia in 529 AD on the former site of the temple of Apollo. It is located 75 miles southeast of Rome. The abbey stands at an altitude of 1,700 feet, overlooking the town of Cassino and the surrounding countryside. The abbey’s original buildings were destroyed by the Lombards in 580 AD and rebuilt in 720 AD. Monte Cassino was again destroyed in 883 by the Saracens and restored in mid 900. In 1349, it was damaged by an earthquake. It was rebuilt again in 1600 only to be sacked by French troops who invaded the Kingdom of Naples. It was again rebuilt and would remain in beautiful condition until 1944.

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Maria Kazimiera - the Queen of Poland
Historia Polski~Polish History

Maria Kazimiera – the Queen of Poland

Aleksander Wietrzyk Part I, II, III, IV, V Tr. Anna Witowska – Ritter
Childhood years

Maria Kazimiera - the Queen of Poland Maria Kazimiera is undoubtedly one of the most famous Polish royal figures. She is known to the general public as ‚Queen Marysienka’ and featured in many historical publications. Some of them present her in a rather superficial way as a wife of famous King and Commander-in-Chief Jan III Sobieski. In that light, Marysienka often appears as a woman who made good use of her beauty, and was attached to her husband, but never honestly loved him. Historians have accused her (often wrongly) of excessive ambition, narrow-mindedness, despotism and more concern for trivia than important matters. Her fame outlived her due to famous „erotic” letters that her royal husband wrote to her. The Queen also left a legacy of extensive correspondence. Only recently have some historians started to express opinions that this beautiful woman had a good heart and amazing intellect.

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Powstanie Warszawskie
Historia Polski~Polish History

Pamięć o mordowanym mieście

Powstanie Warszawskieby Aleksander Wietrzyk

Powstanie Warszawskie nie doczekalo sie do dnia dzisiejszego jednoznacznej oceny. Od chwili jego wybuchu az po dzien dzisiejszy trwa wielki spór pomiedzy historykami, politykami i wojskowymi o jego sens, dobór momentu wybuchu i spelnienie swego zadania. Posród polskiego spoleczenstwa panuje jednomyslne przekonanie, ze Powstanie Warszawskie stanowi narodowa relikwie dzieki bezmiarowi przelanej krwi oraz ogromowi cierpien i poswiecenia.

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1939 War
Historia Polski~Polish History

The Polish Campaign of September 1939 in Perspective

1939 War

by M. Kamil Dziewanowski

While Poland was fighting her desperate defense campaign her Western Allies, despite their formal declaration of war on September 3, stood by and watched. As a matter of fact, for two days there were considerable doubts as to whether France would declare war at all, despite previous promises and resolutions. Although Britain had announced that she would honor her pledges to Poland, the Chamberlain government was reluctant to shake off appeasement. The French Government was even more sluggish. Britain declared war on Germany first on September 3 at 11 a.m., while the French followed reluctantly after serious On September 2, when the Polish ambassador vigorously protested against the French delay in carrying out their clear treaty obligations to give Poland immediate air support, the Minister for Foreign Affairs, George’s Bonnet, indignantly replied: „You don’t expect us to have a massacre of women and children in Paris.” Yet, no French Government could afford to disassociate itself from its British ally and renounce its position as a Great Power. Finally the French declared war on Germany after a delay of six hours.

 

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Bona Sforza, the Queen of Poland
Historia Polski~Polish History

Bona Maria Sforza – the Queen of Poland

Bona Sforza, the Queen of PolandBona Sforza, the Queen of Poland and the Great Princess of Lithuania and also the heiress of the Italian throne of Bari and Rossano, appears to historians as a very contro- versial figure.

On one hand, Bona has been often criticized for her lack of scruples while achieving political goals and was blamed for contributing to the death of her daughter-in-law Barbara Radziwill. On the other hand, the queen initiated a good political relationship with Italy. Which side of the story is true?

Perhaps the truth lies somewhere in the middle.

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Historia Polski~Polish History

Reflections about the Warsaw Uprising of 1944: An Intergenerational Dialogue

by Andrew Targowski

Part I

Abstract

Reflections call for dialogue. The various generations of Poles- the Bridge Generation (the author’s), Our Fathers’ Generation, and Columbus’ Generation-all differ on the logic of the outbreak of the 1944 Warsaw Uprising. This issue is taboo in Polish history as long as the uprising participants remain alive, because they will defend the rightness of their actions, regardless. The situation on the ground was such that the Allies and Resistance had no chance to beat the Axis. Many view the 1944 Uprising as the most tragic event in Poland’s history.

The author bases his opinion on his childhood experience in 1944 Warsaw and discussions on behalf of all victims with the participants in this Uprising. At the end of this dialogue, examples are provided of political and military mistakes throughout Polish history that must serve as warnings to future generations of Poles. The study has a universal character, as the Polish experience is not so unique that it cannot be applied to other geopolitical realities where subjectivism dominates objectivism, ignorance prevails over wisdom, and tragedy overcomes happiness.

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Piaśnica Wielka
Historia Polski~Polish History

Tajemnica Piaśnicy

Piaśnica WielkaOfiary Drugiego Katynia

Piaśnica Wielka, to miejsce kaźni mieszkańców Kaszub dokonanej przez Niemców w pierwszych miesiącach II wojny światowej. Przez miejscowość tę, przepływa rzeka również Piaśnica, która do dnia 1 września 1939 roku, na sporym odcinku swojego biegu stanowiła granicę polsko-niemiecką.

W pierwszych miesiącach II wojny światowej i okupacji ziem polskich przez Rzeszę Niemiecką, w odległości około 10 km od Wejherowa, po lewej stronie szosy wiodącej do Krakowa, na obszarze 250 ha Puszczy Darzlubskiej, została popełniona przez hitlerowców straszliwa zbrodnia, określana jako największa na Pomorzu i w Europie. Miejsce to nazwane jest potocznie Małym, lub Drugim Katyniem, a liczba ofiar kaźni niemieckiej sięga nawet kilkudziesięciu tysięcy.

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baby
Historia Polski~Polish History

Poles Love Peonies

babyChildren played, and parents held their new-borne. The blended fragrance of jasmine and peonies scented the air.  Quality conversation flowed among a delightful mix of people.

It all worked like magic: In defiance of superstition, this Friday 13th, the AMPOD garden party had great luck. 

In defiance of the weatherman, the clouds departed and the sun was bright.  In defiance of urban concrete, the participants found a green oasis.  People came, and the garden party was good.

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